Internet and Computers

Internet and Computers

A. Understanding the Internet

The Internet comes from the Interconnected-networking word that has

the meaning of the relationship between computers with various types that form a network system that covers the entire world (global computer networks) through telecommunications such as telephone, radio links , satellites and others.

In regulating the integration and communication of this computer network protocol is used, namely TCP / IP. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is tasked with ensuring that all relationships work correctly, while IP (Internet Protocol) that transmits data from one computer to another computer. TP C / IP generally functions to choose the best route of data transmission, choose an alternative route if a route is not can be used, manage and send data delivery packages.

To be able to take part in using Internet facilities , you usually have to

subscribe to one of the I SP (Internet Service Providers) in your city.

This ISP is usually called an internet service provider or service provider

The internet . You can use the facilities from Telkom, namely Telkomnet Instant

or Telkom Speedy.

By utilizing the internet, the use of computers throughout the world is possible to communicate with each other and use information together by sending e-mail to one another, connecting to other computers, sending and receiving files, discussing certain topics in newsgroups and others.

B. Definition of Intranet

Intranet is a private network (private network) that uses Internet protocols (TCP / IP), to share confidential company information or operations within the company to employees. Sometimes, the term intranet only refers to services that are visible, namely the company’s internal website. To build an intranet, a network must have several components that build the Internet, namely the Internet protocol (TCP / IP protocol, IP address, and other protocols), clients and servers. The HTTP protocol and several other Internet protocols (FTP, POP3, or SMTP) are generally protocol components that are often used.

Generally, an intranet can be understood as a “private version of an Internet network”, or as a version of the Internet that is owned by an organization.


The internet is a very large computer network. In order to be connected to the network (internet), a computer requires additional hardware (hardware). After the hardware is fulfilled, our computer can be connected to the internet.

1. Computer Network (LAN)

Accessing the internet using a local computer network is connecting a computer to the internet through a local network server that is connected to the internet. Connecting the internet via LAN is usually done in companies, laboratories, schools, internet cafes, and so on.

In order to be able to access the internet via LAN, the computer we use must be connected to the network. To be able to connect to a network, our computer must have a network card (LAN Card).

The advantage of accessing the internet via LAN is the cost of cheaper internet access. This is because the cost of access is divided into several computers. That is why the cost that we spend to access the internet from the internet cafe is cheaper than the cost of access from home using a telephone cable.

The disadvantage of internet access via LAN is that if you are doing a lot of access, access will be slow, especially if there is limited bandwidth .

2. Direct telephone lines

Connecting a computer to the internet using a dial-up line is the easiest way to access the internet. However, to do this we must have a modem installed on the computer, telephone line, and have registered at a particular ISP.

If we use an internet connection service via dial-up, in addition to paying the subscription fee to the ISP, we also have to pay the telephone credit that we use every time we access the internet.

Currently Telkom has provided internet access services called TelkomNet Instant. This service allows us to access directly to the internet without having to register first. telkomNet Instant uses the access number 080989999 with the user ID “telkomnet @ instant” and the password “telkom”. These services can be used throughout Indonesia with local telephone credit payments. If we use this service, payment for internet access will be charged to our monthly telephone payments.

Access speed using dial-up can reach 56 kbps. However, it is usually less than the maximum speed, especially if the telephone network used is busy.

At present, some ISPs support their dial-up connection services with data compression technology .

The technology works by compressing the data you want to send on the telephone line and then on the receiving side the data is returned (uncompressed) again. This makes the data that must be passed on the telephone network to be smaller, so that data transmission becomes faster. This technology can increase the speed of sending data to 4-5 times faster.

The advantage of internet connection using dial-up is the wide range. As long as the telephone is installed, we can use this access.

While the shortcomings of dial-up access are prices that are still relatively expensive, access speeds are unstable and are very dependent on the burden of conversations on the telephone network, as well as access mobility that requires us to stay at or place.


ADSL technology

ADSL technology (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) allows telephone lines to be used to pass digital signals with high speed to transmit data. This allows us to access the internet at high speed. Via telephone line.

ADSL technology provides benefits to internet service providers and customers. Service providers no longer need to build new infrastructure to support ADSL services. Customers certainly don’t need to pay for the new infrastructure. As long as there is a telephone line, ADSL services can be used.

Connection to the internet using ADSL technology allows us to download data from the internet more quickly and efficiently. ADSL is capable of sending data up to 2Mbps to users within 5 km of the telephone exchange.

Another advantage compared to dialup connections, connection to the internet will not be disturbed even if there is an incoming or outgoing call. Vice versa, the telephone can still enter even though the channel is being used for the internet. In other words, we can still use the internet while using the telephone simultaneously. This cannot be done with a dial-up connection.

Besides the advantages of using ADSL technology are:

1. You can connect to the internet, and still be able to use the telephone to receive / call.

2. Speed ​​is much higher than a normal modem.

3. No need for a new telephone cable, ADSL allows using an existing telephone cable.

4. Some ADSL ISPs will provide an ADSL modem as part of the installation.

The weakness of ADSL technology is the price of modems that are relatively more expensive compared to modems for dial-up. In addition, the price of subscribing to ADSL connections is still relatively expensive if it is only used for individuals. ADSL services are also not yet available in all regions, besides there are also other weaknesses including:

ADSL losses

1. The ADSL connection will work perfectly if our location is close enough to the telephone exchange.

    At least within a distance of 2-3 km stretch of cable is usually quite safe to use ADSL

    speed of around 8 Mbps. The new DSL technology can transmit data at very fast speeds

    high up to 100 Mbps. Of course for very short distances.

2. ADSL connection is faster to receive data than to send data over the internet.

3. Old copper cables can reduce connection quality and reduce speed.

4. ADSL services do not exist in regions where there is no telephone cable.

    To be able to use ADSL, we must provide an ADSL modem and also be registered as

    ISP customers who provide connection services use ADSL technology.


Cable TV Network

Some Cable TV companies also provide internet access services via the Cable TV network. Internet access using the Cable TV network is the right choice for internet users in a family, where some people can access the internet together.

Cable TV networks are made for wide data communication lines. This is because Cable TV must pass high-quality moving and sound image data. If it is used for the internet with data that is only passed much smaller, we will get very fast internet access.

Usually, the costs incurred for internet access with Cable TV are a package with cable TV services. Therefore, free cable TV network users surf without having to add expenses.

The advantages of accessing the internet by using the Cable TV network is to access the internet at any time and free from busy telephone calls.

The disadvantage of intrnet access with Cable TV networks is that they are only available in big cities and that they are limited to certain areas covered by Cable TV services.


GPRS ( General Packet Radio Sevice ) is a technology for sending data in packets using radio waves. GPRS is a two and a half generation wireless communication technology (2.5G) which is a development of GSM (2G) technology.

As wireless technology, we can use GPRS to access the internet anywhere as long as we are within the GPRS signal range

The need for mobile communication will cause GPRS to become one of the most widely used data communication technologies today. GPRS has fast data transfer, which can reach 115kbps. Although in practice, GPRS data transfer speeds are still at 25-30 kbps.

In theory GPRS promises speeds ranging from 56 kbps to 115 kbps, allowing internet access, sending multimedia data to computers, notebooks and handheld computers .

However, in its implementation, it depends on the following factors:

• Configuration and time slot allocation at BTS level

• Software used

• Feature support and mobile application used

Main component

The main components of the GPRS network are:

• GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node): gateway to the GPRS network connection to the internet network. The function of this component is as an interface to PDN (Public Data Network), information routing, network screening, user screening, address mapping.

• SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node): gateway for BSS / BTS network connections to GPRS networks.

This component serves to deliver data packages to MS, update customers to HLR, register new customers.

• PCU: a component at the BSS level that connects the terminal to the GPRS network

Way of work

SGSN served:

1. Send a package to Mobile Station (MS) in one area

2. Sending a number of questions to the HLR to obtain customer data profiles GPRS (management mobility)

3. Detect the new MS-GPRS in a service area that is its responsibility (location management)

4. SGSN is connected to BSS on GSM with Frame Relay connection via PCU (Packet Control Unit) within the BSC

GGSN is in charge of:

1. As an interface to external IP networks such as: public internet or mobile service provider

2. Updating routing information from the PDU (Units Data Protocol) to the SGSN.

GPRS uses a packet switch communication system as a way to transmit data. Packet switches are systems where the data to be transmitted is divided into small parts (packets) and then transmitted and converted back to the original data. This system can transmit thousands or even millions of packets per second. Transmission is done through (Public Land Mobile Network) by using a backbone IP. Because it is possible for PLMNs to use channel transmission simultaneously by other users, GPRS access costs, in theory, are cheaper than CSD access costs.

GPRS is designed to provide packet data transfer services on GSM networks with a better speed than GSM. This better speed is obtained by using a coding scheme (CS) that is different from GSM.


GPRS in Indonesia

Companies that pioneered GPRS in Indonesia are:

1. TelkomVentus – PT. Telkom VENTUS is a brand name for Push email, which is a value-added service and convergence of e-mail services and mobile systems that enable relaying of e-mails that have been received via desktop or laptop to a smartphone or PDA phone By using this service, the email account owner can receive or send electronic messages, not in the form of short messages via his handphone or PDA terminal. Push email products are a product that can be analogous to ‘bringing’ all the capabilities of receiving and sending emails from a desktop or notebook to a smartphone or PDA phone that is connected to the GPRS (Global Packet Radio Services) network or PDN (Packet Data Network)

2. BlackBerry – PT. Indosat Aimed at Postpaid Matrix customers in the Jabotabek corporate area Indosat will install a Blackberry Enterprise Server (BES) installation on the company’s server. Every email that goes to the company’s email server inbox will be encrypted, then pushed to the cellphone through the Indosat GPRS network. The mobile phone used is a special Blackberry 7730 series mobile phone that operates in the triband 900/1800/1900 Mhz GSM network. BlackBerry services provide integrated wireless access, both for email, telephone, personal information management (PIM), and enterprise data applications.

Installation methods

To be able to use GPRS (especially on mobile phones that support) settings are needed first. The way the GPRS settings are from each operator. To use GPRS on a computer, you can connect a mobile phone that has GPRS set up with a computer. Next, PC Suite is needed (is a software CD that is packaged when buying a mid-end cellphone and above).

At present, the development of GPRS in Indonesia is unable to compete with 3G technology which is indeed a further development of GPRS.

The GPRS service tariff system is done not based on the length of usage, but based on the amount of data transferred.

GPRS technology allows us to access the internet from anywhere. The important thing is that we have a computer, a cellular telephone equipped with GPRS facilities, and a SIM card that provides GPRS services.

The disadvantage of GPRS is to get a mobile internet connection, we must make certain settings on our cellular teleon. This is quite difficult because every cellphone brand and cellular telephone operator has their own method to activate the GPRS facility.

Another disadvantage of internet connection using GPRS is that the price of services is relatively expensive.  

The average operator charges a tariff of Rp 5 / kb. This means that if we download data of 1MB, we have to pay 5 × 1024 = Rp. 5,120.00. When compared to dial-up services, with an average download speed of 4kbps, to download 1MB we only need about 5 minutes. The cost that we incur for the 5 minute connection is only 5/60 x Rp 10,000.00 = Rp. 834.00.



WiFi stands for Wireless Fidelity.

WiFi is a free technology that uses high frequency electromagnetic waves to transmit data. The frequency used by WiFi technology is in the 2.3 GHz spectrum.

By using WiFi, we can access the internet quickly. WiFi has internet access capability up to 11 Mbps or five times faster than 3G internet access.

Because it uses wireless, WiFi technology is suitable to be used in locations or locations that are constantly changing in appearance.

In order for our computers to connect to the internet using Wifi, our computers must be equipped with WiFi cards or have supported WiFi technology. Then we are at a location where WiFi signals are available or often referred to as hotspots or point points. Currently there are many public places that have provided access to internet connection services using WiFi.

There are three kms available in a hotspot location , among others:

1. Access Point is a device that connects wireless LAN technology with Ethernet on a computer. Access points have to serve 128 people. The area that can be reached by an access point reaches 25-100 meters.

2. Access Controller (Access controller) is a device that functions as an authentication tool, checking whether a user is a person who has the right or permission to access.

3. Internet Link is a device that connects hotspot locations with the internet. Internet links have the ability to connect to the internet up to 512 kbps. This connection capability is used to serve all users in one location.

The disadvantage of internet access with WiFi is that access can only be done in the area as far as 100m from the point. And until now, only certain places have been installed point points.

Certain places are usually campuses, hotels, cafes, airports, and other public places. At present there are many malls, cafes, hotels that provide internet access services using WiFi for free. This was then used by many people to access the internet while hanging out with friends.

Another disadvantage of internet access via WiFi is data security issues. Even though it has been encrypted, the data sent through the data network is easily penetrated.

Wireless Broadband

Wifi technology allows us to access the internet at a high speed. However, the condition is that we must be in the area covered by the WiFi signal.

Limited area with WiFi signal and very short range of WiFi signal coverage (around 100m) causes us to only be able to use WiFi in certain areas.

Currently a new wireless technology is being developed called Wireless Broadband (WiBro).

However, this technology is still in the development stage and has only been used in several countries and has not been marketed in Indonesia.

Compared to WiFi, WiBro can be accessed from a distance of 1 kilometer from its point with access speeds of 512 kbps. WiBro access can also still be done from vehicles that move at speeds of up to 60 km / hour.


3G services can be obtained through GSM or CDMA operators.

For GSM operators, 3G uses WCDMA technology. The technology is an evolution of GSM technology which later developed into GPRS. Then GPRS developed into EDGE (Enhanced data rates for GSM Evolution) and eventually became WCDMA (3).

Whereas for CMA operators, 3G uses EDV technology (Evolution Data Optimized). The technology is an evolution from IS95 20001X (2.5G) to CDMA20001X EVDO (3G) and then to CDMA20001X EVDV (3G).

The advantages of internet access using 3G, in addition to wide bandwidth, can also be supported with HSDPA technology (High Speed ​​Downlink Packet Access).

This technology allows internet access to reach 2.6 mbps or 40 times faster than internet access with dial-up.

The disadvantage of 3G technology is that we can only use it as far as the service provider operator’s area Currently, 3G service coverage is very limited.

3G service operators, such as Indosat, Telkomsel, and the new XL, can only deliver services in big cities in Indonesia and are still dominated by Java. 3G service operators still have to think twice about developing services to other areas with small potential users, because the investment costs incurred to build infrastructure are very large. This means that other areas will still be long reached by 3G services.

Another disadvantage if you want to use internet access with 3G services is the device used.

If we want to access internet services using 3G, we must have a cellphone equipped with 3G technology. In fact, 3G mobile phones are still expensive.

The 3G network is not an upgrade from 2G; 2G operators affiliated with 3GPP need to replace many components to be able to provide 3G services.

Meanwhile, 2G operators affiliated with 3GPP2 technology are easier to upgrade to 3G because various network elements have been designed for broadband wireless services.

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